Spoofing Attack: IP, DNS & ARP
A well-developed security posture is critical for any company. Organizations must take proactive actions to secure the security of their customers’ data throughout the development process, rather than assuming it. Veracode offers strong cloud-based tools for detecting vulnerabilities and security problems before they are exploited by attackers, including static and dynamic security analysis.
Spoofing is a frequent threat that involves an attacker impersonating an IP address or other identification to get access to sensitive data and otherwise secure systems. According to a survey published in 2018, the Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA) estimates that 30,000 spoofing attacks occur every day.
What Is a Spoofing Attack?
Spoofing occurs when an attacker pretends to be a legitimate device or user to steal data, spread malware, or get around access control measures.
There are several varieties of spoofing, with the following three being the most common:
Spoofing an IP address – An attacker sends packets over the network using a fake IP address.
ARP spoofing is when an attacker tries their MAC address to an already-existing authorized IP address on the network.
DNS spoofing – An attacker uses a threat like a cache poisoning to redirect traffic meant for a given domain name to a different IP address.
Continue reading to learn more about these three types of spoofing attacks, as well as how to mitigate or avoid them. You may also learn more about software security by downloading our free State of Software Security v11 report.
IP Address Spoofing Attacks
An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a numerical identifier for a computer on a network. Attackers modify the IP header in IP address spoofing to make the packet appear to come from a valid source. This deceives the target machine into accepting malicious malware or granting access to sensitive data to the attackers.
A denial-of-service attack can be carried out using IP address spoofing. In this assault, attackers broadcast hundreds or thousands of IP packets from several faked IP addresses, flooding the network with more data than it can handle. Alternatively, the address of a certain machine can be faked to send a large number of packets to other devices on the same network. The faked machine gets knocked offline because machines automatically send responses when they receive an IP packet.
IP spoofing is also used by attackers to get around authentication that relies on a device’s IP address. Systems that are built to accept connections from untrusted computers that spoof a trusted machine’s IP address can be misled into accepting connections from untrusted machines that impersonate a trusted machine’s IP address.
Attacks on ARP Spoofing/ARP Cache Poisoning
By resolving IP addresses to a specific MAC (Media Access Control) address, ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is used to identify valid machines on a network. An attacker uses ARP spoofing to transmit packets to the network that appear to be from these authorized devices. Further machines on the network will willingly transmit data back to the attacker, which the attacker can use for other, more sophisticated assaults.
ARP Spoofing Attacks/ARP Cache Poisoning
Denial-of-service attacks, in which fake data is blasted into networks or machines, causing them to go offline.
Attackers abuse legitimate users’ in-progress authentication to obtain unauthorized access to data and devices, which is known as session hijacking.
Attackers spoof various devices to steal data intended for legitimate devices in man-in-the-middle attacks.
DNS Spoofing Attacks
An attacker uses DNS spoofing to offer misleading information to a system’s DNS (Domain Name System) facility, usually by adding wrong information into the local DNS cache. When an application needs to contact a network resource by hostname, the system uses a DNS query to a DNS server configured for the network to find up the right IP address associated with that name. Most systems store DNS query results for some time to decrease server load – thus if an attacker can change the contents of that cache, they can mislead apps into requesting an IP that isn’t registered in the DNS system for a specific hostname.
How to Prevent and Mitigate Spoofing Attacks
DNS server spoofing is frequently used to redirect web traffic to a server controlled by the attacker to distribute computer viruses and other malware to users’ machines, or to mislead the user into providing sensitive information.
Employ Packet Filtering with Deep Packet Inspection
Get the eBook How to Prevent and Respond to Spoofing Attacks for free.
Spoofing assaults can be devastating, but there are measures to lessen the risk of them happening and even avoid them entirely.
Authenticate users and systems
IP packets are analyzed and those with contradicting source information are blocked via packet filtering. This is a smart approach to remove faked IP packets because malicious packets will arrive from outside the network regardless of what their headers indicate. Most packet-filter systems include a DPI (Deep Packet Inspection) feature since attackers have developed strategies for circumventing simple packet filters. DPI enables you to set rules based on the header and content of network packets, allowing you to block a variety of IP spoofing attacks.
Use Spoofing Detection Software
IP spoofing can evade authentication controls if devices on a network utilize solely IP addresses for authentication. Individual users or programs should authenticate connections between devices, or authenticity solutions such as mutual certificate auth, IPSec, and domain authentication should be used.
Use Encrypted and Authenticated Protocols
Several programs assist in the detection of spoofing attacks, particularly ARP spoofing. For ARP spoofing defense, use a tool like NetCut, Arp Monitor, or arpwatch. Spoofing attacks can be considerably reduced if these and other technologies can check and certify authentic data before it is received by a target machine.
Encrypted and authenticated protocols should be used.
Several secure communication protocols have been created by security specialists, including Transport Layer Security (TLS) (used by HTTPS and FTPS), Internet Protocol Security (IPSec), and Secure Shell (SSH). These protocols, when used correctly, authenticate the application or device to which you’re connecting and encrypt data in transit, lowering the chances of a successful spoofing attack.